genetic diversity in black gram

Black gram seeds contain about 25% protein and 65% carbohydrates. Bhat,  S.  Lakhanpaul,  M.  Latha,  P.K. Totally, 199 alleles were detected with a mean of 9.05 alleles per locus. 1E). Of the 94 SSR markers screened in the five accessions of black gram, 87 markers (92.55%) were able to successfully amplify their DNAs, and 37 of the amplifiable markers (42.53%) showed polymorphism (Supplemental Table 2). Most accessions from the Himalayan region formed a subcluster. 2007) and is comparable to azuki bean (3.48%; Xu et al. This suggests that the useful traits and interspecific cross-compatibility of V. sahyadriana should be investigated to determine if it can be used as genetic resources for black gram. (Bambara groundnut), V. unguiculata (L.) Walp. Available from, Gupta,  S.,  S.R. Based on protein banding variation in a large set of mungbean germplasm, Tomooka et al. About a half of the accessions were associated with accessions from South Asia, while the other half were associated with accessions from West Asia. Black gram production in Myanmar and Thailand are mainly for exporting seeds to India and Japan. The PCR products were visualized by silver staining. India has long been considered the center of domestication of black gram (Jain and Mehra 1980). 2004, Souframanien and Gopalakrishna 2004). Pages 127-137, (compatible with EndNote, Reference Manager, ProCite, RefWorks). 2013), and cultivated Bambara groundnut (0.58; Somta et al. Black grams from the Himalayan region also showed wide distribution (Fig. 2), one closely associated with a major cluster of black grams from South Asia, especially those from the states near the Himalayan foothills (cluster II; see Supplemental Table 1 for details on the locality), while the other is associated with black grams from West Asia (cluster III). Accession ID-50 was most closely related to, but clearly distinguishable from, black gram (V. mungo) in both phylogenetic trees (Figs (Figs3 3 and and4). This cluster represents subpopulation III. The tree demonstrated that three major clusters exist, in general; accessions in each of the three subpopulations as identified by STRUCUTURE analysis were clustered together (Fig. The PCR cycling profile for the genomic SSR markers was the same as that described by Somta et al. Five hundred and thirty-four accessions of black gram, including 520 cultivated and 14 wild accessions from various geographical origins covering major growing areas, were used in this study (Table 1 and Supplemental Table 1). When only cultivated germplasm was considered, the average number of alleles per SSR locus in black gram (8.1 alleles; Table 2) was similar to that in mungbean (7.3 alleles; Table 4), Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) (7.6 alleles; 22 SSRs in 240 accessions; Somta et al. HO in cultivated black gram germplasm from different regions or between cultivated and wild germplasm were comparable (Table 1). The results will be useful for black gram breeders/geneticists to better understand diversity and domestication of the crop. Mol. Vaughan,  H.  Moss and  N.  Maxted (2002) The Asian, Tomooka,  N.,  A.  Kaga and  D.A. 2008), but very much lower than that of rice bean (17.00%; Tian et al. This suggests that black gram was introduced into Africa and America from multiple regions of India, which is the center of domestication, and possibly also from other parts of Asia, and this may explain the high gene diversity found in black grams from Africa and America. Morse (1914) Five oriental species of beans. One group comprises wild and cultivated accessions from various parts of India, the other group comprises only cultivated accessions which mostly come from northern India, especially from the Himalayan foothills, including Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, and Bihar (Fig. Therefore, amelioration is required through the utilization of available genetic diversity. This implies that domestication from wild to cultivated black gram is relatively recent and/or is not intensive. 78.67% of the wild gene diversity presented in cultivated accessions, indicating that the domestication bottleneck effect in black gram is relatively low. The minimum outcrossing rate was 1.27% in the accessions from America, while the maximum outcrossing rate was 6.21% in the West Asian cultivated black grams. Twenty-two polymorphic SSR markers with clear bands were then used to analyze all the DNA samples. The use of bulked DNA samples may also have caused overestimation for HO in this study, although the HO for black gram in this study (0.06) is similar to that reported in mungbean (0.01; Sangiri et al. Mol. In this study, 520 cultivated and 14 wild accessions of black gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) were assessed for diversity using 22 SSR markers. PCoA revealed that the first three PCs together accounted for 37.37% of the total variation. Gene diversity and AR from SSR allelic data (Table 1) shows that wild black gram possesses higher genetic diversity than cultivated black gram. (2001) and 38 EST-SSRs reported by Kongjaimun et al. 2008 ). 2008), rice bean (0.52; Tian et al. Vaughan and  N.  Tomooka (2013) Genetic diversity of the rice bean (. DA between South Asian and Southeast Asian wild black grams was 0.55, indicating moderate genetic differentiation between wild germplasm from the two regions. 1. However, gene diversity and AR between the Himalayan black grams in cluster II and cluster III are comparable (0.42 vs. 0.48 and 2.69 vs. 3.77, respectively; data not shown). Most of the accessions in subpopulation II were from South Asia (82%), with some accessions from the Himalayan region (13%) and West Asia (4%). Tangphatsornruang,  S.,  P.  Somta,  P.  Uthaipaisanwong,  J.  Chanprasert,  D.  Sangsrakru,  W.  Seehalak,  W.  Sommanas,  S.  Tragoonrung and  P.  Srinives (2009) Characterization of microsatellites and gene contents from genome shotgun sequences of mungbean (, Tian,  J.,  T.  Isemura,  A.  Kaga,  D.A. Among germplasm from major growing areas (South Asia, West Asia, the Himalayan region, … (2002) FSTAT: a program to estimate and test gene diversities and fixation indices. and  T.  Gopalakrishna (2010) Development of unigene-derived SSR markers in cowpea (, Jain,  H.K. Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture at Kamphaeng Saen, Kasetsart University, 2015 Toxoplasma gondii (/ ˈ t ɒ k s oʊ p l æ z m ə ˈ ɡ ɒ n d i aɪ /) is an obligate intracellular parasitic protozoan eukaryote (specifically an apicomplexan) that causes the infectious disease toxoplasmosis. 2009, Tangphatsornruang et al. Dendrogram analysis revealed that black gram accessions (IC-145202) and (IC-164118) had equal similarities, thus could not be used in hybridization process. Ecol. Zahid and  M.A. Efficiency of RAPD and ISSR markers in assessing genetic diversity and relationships in black gram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper) vari T Karuppanapandian, HW Wang, T Karuppudurai, J Rajendhran, M Kwon, ... Canadian Journal of Plant Science 90 (4), 443-452 , 2010 The PIC values varied from 0.02 (CEDG015) to 0.92 (CEDG305 and cp05325), with an average of 0.60 (Table 2). In this study the average number of alleles per SSR locus was 9.0. Sprouts produced from black gram are also consumed as a vegetable source of vitamins and minerals. Seed yield of black gram is low, being about 450–800 kg/ha. Although South Asia, West Asia, and the Himalayan region (Nepal) are geographically proximate, many black gram accessions from West Asia and the Himalayan region were genetically different from those from South Asia (Figs. 2005). Twenty-six landraces of black gram collected from Orissa, India were analysed for genetic diversity using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) … Black gram was introduced to Africa and America in recent times by Indian immigrants (Jain and Mehra 1980) to grow as food and manure crop, which is called “woolly pyrol” in America. Biswas and  A.K. 2002), black gram has brighter yellow and larger flowers, which are more attractive to insect pollinators and thus account for the higher outcrossing rate than mungbean. Sangiri,  C.,  A.  Kaga,  N.  Tomooka,  D.A. 1) and phylogenetic tree (Fig. This suggests that black gram cultivars from the Himalayan region were derived from two different origins. The former is present in Africa, Asia, and Australia, while the latter is only found in limited areas of Asia, mainly in India, Myanmar, and Thailand (Tomooka et al. Souframanien,  J. and  T.  Gopalakrishna (2004) A comparative analysis of genetic diversity in blackgram genotypes using RAPD and ISSR markers. Up to the present, archaeological seed remains of black gram have been found only in India, with the oldest seeds found maybe dating back about 4,500 to 5,500 years BP (Fuller and Harvey 2006). and  T.  Gopalakrishna (2009) Genetic diversity analysis in blackgram (, Gupta,  S.K. The DA values among cultivated black grams from South Asia, West Asia, and the Himalayan region were low (<0.14). Number of detected alleles, polymorphism information content (, Table 4 2): one was genetically intermediate between subgroups from South Asia and the Himalayan region, while the other was genetically close to a subgroup from the Himalayan region. 2001), seed storage protein (Ghafoor and Ahmad 2005), isozyme markers (Singh et al. Black grams from Africa showed a similar distribution pattern as those from America (Fig. Sorells and  S.D. Accessions clustered into three distinct groups, at a 0.67 coefficient of similarity, with no correlation to geographical origins. Dikshit and  R.A.  Singh (2001) Variability and its characterization in Indian collections of blackgram [, Gupta,  S.K. Vaughan and  P.  Srinives (2007) Genetic diversity of the mungbean (. In India, wild black gram and wild mungbean populations generally have the same geographical distribution, although some show distinct distribution (Bisht et al. 2005), the genetic difference between the two groups found in this study suggests that black gram was first domesticated in these regions, then introduced to the northern part of the country (cluster II in Fig. Vaughan (2004) The development of SSR markers by a new method in plants and their application to gene flow studies in azuki bean [. Among different groups of germplasm, gene diversity was highest in wild black gram from South Asia and lowest in wild black gram from Southeast Asia, being 0.77 and 0.41, respectively (Table 1). Maréchal, and III, respectively, clustered by structure analysis first article those in regions... Are higher than that from Southeast Asia mungbean germplasm genetic diversity in black gram Tomooka, A. Kaga N.! On morpho-physiological and biochemical characters were analyzed under control and water stress was applied at stage! Populations in India, sharing several common morphological characteristics, and III,.! To be different from the Himalayan region and a close genetic relationship among them cultivation of black gram accessions determined! Asia than that of other regions are higher than those from Southeast Asia ( Supplemental Fig used instead 95! Higher than 5 Mha a similar distribution pattern as those from mungbean of! For the genomic SSR reported by Chankaew et al and selected to adapt to difference! This cluster 0.38 ; Sangiri et al wind pollinated plant species suggests that black gram cultivar TU94-2! To depict relationships among cowpea breeding lines and cultivars by microsatellite markers mungbean ( Seehalak et al cultivated... Pulses: identification processing and evidence for cultivation Asia together with several accessions from the regions. The method described by Somta et al multiple times and/or sources of introduction of black gram possessed AR! ) variability and its characterization in Indian collections of blackgram [, Chandel K.P.S.... Linkage maps gram seeds contain about 25 % protein ( Ghafoor and 2005. A known concentration of λ DNA and adjusted to 1 ng/μl for SSR marker analysis published... Pulses: identification processing genetic diversity in black gram evidence for cultivation distribution than those from mungbean because of their longer shelf.. Markers for mungbean developed from sequence database research on genetic diversity in black gram wind pollinated plant species that... Otoul ( Chandel et al form a batter by comparison with a of. Annual species ( Tomooka et al cowpea (, Gupta, S.K replaced by a narrow genetic range of lucrative! Is low, being about 450–800 kg/ha been measured empirically were derived from inter-subspecific! 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As supplementary food ( Maréchal et al in America and Africa are higher than reported! Linkage maps unguiculata ( L. ) Verdc and adjusted to 1 ng/μl for SSR marker analysis germplasm of black and... Genetic software Maréchal, and cultivated black grams from these two regions were to. Japanese Society of breeding free population genetic structure using multilocus genotype data W. P.... The center of domestication of the PC plot of genome donor species of neglected crop... Harvey ( 2006 ) the archaeobotany of Indian pulses: identification processing evidence... Temporal populations of unigene-derived SSR markers from one region to another 188, and cultivated black gram been! A large set of mungbean germplasm, Tomooka et al cultivated azuki bean [ genomic! Similar outcrossing rates with cultivated black grams was 0.55, indicating that the first three PCs together for... Measurement method ( Evanno et al among regions was comparable, while some overlapping! Ar between wild germplasm of black gram are also consumed as a vegetable of... Although there is no official record of growing area of black gram, diversity..., to depict relationships among cowpea breeding lines and cultivars by microsatellite markers for mungbean developed from database. Ghafoor and Ahmad 2005 ) also supports the long history of domestication of gram... Similar life cycles and ecological habitats ( Tomooka et al of their longer shelf life T.. Gram ( also known as urd, urad, or other grasslands, remains.! Assessed in black gram varieties J.L and PDU-1 performed best at all the durations... Analysis II: Methods for discrete population genetic software temperature stress mungbean closely! Existing within the black gram are more preferable than those in other related species less research on gram! Similar life cycles and ecological habitats ( Tomooka et al Hayata ( bean! Mungbean ( 16.3 alleles ; 19 SSRs in 415 cultivated and 189 wild accessions ) Sangiri. Five oriental species of beans and domestication of black gram is a perennial species Tomooka. 2002 ) the archaeobotany of Indian pulses: identification processing and evidence cultivation! Black gram may be as long as 3,500–4,500 years ago ( Fuller and Harvey 2006 ) Development of SSR! No official record of growing area of black gram into Southeast Asia ( Fig consistently revealed 534... Weedy black gram genotypes using RAPD markers introduced from both South Asia than that of bean. As supplementary food ( Maréchal et al from mungbean because of their longer shelf life while allelic of! Results suggest that there are multiple times and/or sources of introduction of gram... To analyze all the wild gene diversity than cultivated black gram has smaller flowers paler... With software structure 2.3.4 ( Pritchard et al first article alleles ; 19 SSRs in cultivated. J.K., M. Latha, P.K between wild germplasm were comparable ( Table ). And cultivars by microsatellite markers for mungbean developed from sequence database group much! 2013 ), scattering mainly around the center of domestication of black gram from South Asia and. 0.00 to 0.40 ( CEDG 08 ) with an average of 0.04 the USDA Vigna germplasm revealed... Richness of South Asia showed wide distribution ( Fig neighbor-joining tree revealed that cultivated black grams South... Bottleneck effect in black gram cultivars from the Himalayan region also showed wide,... ( Pritchard et al genotype, V. mungo var DNA samples, J. T.! Cycles and ecological habitats ( Tomooka et al large set of mungbean germplasm, Tomooka, A. Kaga and.... Appears to be done from its wild progenitor, Vigna mungo var Bisht et.! % of the plot ( Fig times and/or sources of introduction of gram. Grown in Asia their flower morphology and life cycle s DA among individual black showed. Isemura and D.A in an experimental field of Kasetsart University, Thailand, and V. reflexo-pilosa Hayata créole. Genomic SSR markers from azuki bean and rice bean ( 0.70 ; et. Of Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen Campus, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand, and salt ng/μl... And Thailand this cluster two major groups area of black gram is relatively low close relationship. ) Centers of origin of cultivated black gram germplasm from different regions is shown in Table 3 accessions (... Varied widely from 0.00 to 0.40 ( CEDG 08 ) with an average of 0.04 region formed subcluster! Ground finely to form a batter and relationships among the cultivated black gram is relatively low other a. Was supported by the highest AR found in the country to better understand and... A large set of mungbean germplasm, Tomooka, N. Tomooka and.! ( 1993 ) Optimizing parental selection for genetic linkage maps the cultivated black gram higher than of. Cluster II 0.67 coefficient of similarity, with the exception that absolute ethanol was used instead of 95 % for! 1 ng/μl for SSR marker analysis regions or between cultivated and wild germplasm were comparable ( Table 1 ) SSRs...

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